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Bamboo Farming in Tanzania – A New Source of Construction Materials and Energy for Domestic Uses.
Bamboo Farming in Tanzania – A New Source of Construction Materials and Energy for Domestic Uses.J. Shuma -TaTEDO

Recently, bamboo has emerged as a new source of biomass for energy production. Many studies and research has been conducted to evaluate the suitability of bamboo as a source of energy. Studies have been carried out in many countries (mostly where bamboos are abundant such as China, India, Indonesia and Thailand). Many studies referred to bamboo as a competent alternative for biomass resource.

Bamboo is a member of grass family (Gramineae), subfamily Bambusoideae. The bamboo forests in Tanzania cover an estimated area of 127,000 ha with standing stock of approximately 1200 million running metres (Chihongo, 2000 Pers. comm.) These forests are mainly found in two ecological zones that are the high rainfall forests of the Eastern Arc Mountains and Lowland areas. A special research done by Shimoda (1966) was aimed to research on bamboo regarding distribution and species composition in Tanzania.

In Tanzania there are three main species of bamboo. These include Arundinaria alpina and close family species A. tolange, Oxytenanthera abyssinica and close family species O. braunii and Oreobambos buchwaldii on the other hand Bambusa vulgaris var striata together with B. multiplex, B. nutans, Chimono-bambusa hookeriana and B. bambos constitute the exotic bamboo species that have shown good growth within the Tanzanian local conditions (Chihongo, 2000 Pers. Comm.). Although bamboo is flexible and lightweight, it has received hardness or strength, ratings higher than many hardwoods. Bamboo is characterized as the fast growing plants which reduce rate of deforestation and for income generation.

There are several ways to recover energy from bamboo biomass, each process results in different products, which can be utilized in many aspects. Bamboo biomass can be processed in various ways (thermal or biochemical conversion) to produce different energy products (charcoal, syngas and biofuels), which can be substitutions for existing fossil fuel products.

Dry bamboo biomass whether firewood or charcoal can be used as firewood to generate heat for cooking, boiling and warming in households. It is a good source of energy for remote area where people cannot access electricity.

Pyrolysis is the thermal degradation of organic materials at a moderate temperature (350 to 600ºC) in the absence of oxygen. The products of pyrolysis process consist of charcoal (solid phase), condensable pyrolysis oils (heavy aromatic and hydrocarbons) and tars (liquid phase) and con-condensable gases or syngas (gaseous phase). Charcoal can be used as a secondary fuel the same way that coal has been used. Syngas, consists of carbon monoxide, hydrogen and methane, can be burnt in a boiler for electricity generation or in a gas engine for power production. Pyrolysis oils can be further processed in “bio-refinery”, very similar to the current crude oil refinery process, to produce bio-fuels and other useful chemical products.

The two importance advantages of biomass over fossil fuel are sustainability and level of CO2 emission. Bamboo biomass is a renewable source which means it can re-generated in a sustainable rate for extraction. Although the processing of biomass (thermal conversion and biochemical conversion) also release CO2, it does not contribute to the increasing of greenhouse gases concentration in the atmosphere because the CO2 emitted from these process is the very same carbon dioxide in the atmosphere fixed by photosynthesis within the bamboos.

The idea to cultivate bamboo may sound strange in Tanzania but the fact that deforestation is taking place at an alarming rate with unparalleled tree planting efforts; time has come for Tanzania to learn from other countries about alternative measures to mitigate effects of climate change. Limited efforts towards those alternative measures have been practised by the TFS North Ruvu Forest Plantation where field staff are sowing bamboo seeds from Asian Countries and transplanting thousands of seedlings to the forest land. Bamboo species promoted by the Ruvu North Forest Plantation are Bambusa bambos, Dendrocalamus aspar, Dendrocalamus membranaey and local species (Bambusa Vulgaris).

According to their meeting with members of the Voice of Firewood and Charcoal Stakeholders Taskforce (VFCS) during the study tour to the Ruvu North Forest Plantation in April 10, 2017, plantation management said that the lion’s share could be earned by Tanzanians, because plantation will be in the position to produce a vast range bamboo-based products from poles for construction, charcoal, furniture, baskets and scaffolding to luxury flooring and foods. The Voice of Firewood and Charcoal Stakeholders (VFCS) is a task force which is looking for alternative means of using non-forest products as energy for cooking that will benefit the majority in rural and urban areas. The taskforce is comprised of members from TaTEDO, TASONABI and activists of biomass energy resources.

Accrding to Ruvu management, scaling up requires expertise in specialized areas such as micro-enterprise development, small-scale or industrial bamboo growing and production of bamboo products that might be better found in the private sector. Bamboo will bring wealth to the people, cleans rivers, stops soil erosion, and so on. Bamboo also will generate income to the people through production of bamboo products such as bamboo textile products; and bamboo energy products ranging from generation of electricity to briquettes for mass domestic use.

Bamboo has been increasing in importance as a non-timber forest product in Tanzania over the last two decades, according to INBAR. Locally bamboo is sought for handicrafts, residential fencing, flower farming, farm props for banana plantations, furniture and other minor cottage industry products like basketry and toothpicks.

Almost all the bamboo products made in the country are used domestically. Bamboo farms should be established to ensure a sustainable supply for the handicraft, construction and horticultural industries, among others.

 
Did You Know that Rural Energy Master Plan Study has been Launched in Tanzania?
Did You Know that Rural Energy Master Plan Study has been Launched in Tanzania?
Tanzania is confronting a major challenge related to expansion of rural energy services. Energy is the main driver of the social economic development and the Government of Tanzania considers availability of energy as necessary to catalyze economic growth.

Currently, only 25% of the rural population has access to electricity services. Through establishment of the Rural Energy Agency (REA) the expansion of the electricity and other modern energy services to rural communities has been accelerated in recent years. Due to the size of the country, high demand for electricity and limited resources the efforts to expand these services have been facing great challenges.

In collaboration with other key stakeholders, the Government through REA has recognized the importance of coordinated efforts in implementing and ensuring sustainable rural energy services through a Master Plan; which was officially launched on 6th April, 2017 followed by series of meetings with various stakeholders to put strategies for the best Master Plan.

TaTEDO is part of the consortium which is preparing the Master plan together with the Multiconsult and IED. The master plan aims at supporting energy sector policies and initiatives towards ensuring reliable and cost efficient energy services for social and productive use, rational and efficient use of energy, and energy conservation. The plan will define the priority order of energy provision including energy for lighting and cooking, electrification schemes both grid extensions and off grid schemes based on economic, financial, environmental and social criteria. The plan will evaluate possibilities through market mechanisms, tariff settings and subsidies to increase access to energy especially among the rural poor, assess the possibilities to reduce the cost of electrification through adoption of low cost options in distribution technology, and estimate the financing requirements to implement the programme.

Moreover, it will encourage development of available energy resources in rural off-grid areas and increased contribution of renewable energy sources in the national energy balance.
The overall objective of this assignment is to provide the Rural Energy Agency (REA), with an up-to-date tool for planning and implementation of rural energy provision meeting target set in the National Energy Policy, National Strategy for Growth and Poverty Alleviation (MKUKUTA) and Sustainable Energy for All (SE4ALL) goals. The plan is also aimed at exploitation and utilization of renewable energy sources for improved energy supplies in the country.

The Rural Energy Master Plan will cover the period 2018 – 2030 to match that of Sustainable Energy for All. The planning work shall be performed in close cooperation with the Ministry of Energy & Minerals (MEM) and other stakeholders in the field of rural energy provision.


 
PIPA Project National Inception Workshop, March 7, 2017, SEDC Conference Hall, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
PIPA Project National Inception Workshop, March 7, 2017, SEDC Conference Hall, Dar es Salaam, TanzaniaEast African Community’s member states are among 197parties which signed the Paris Agreement in New York, US, paving the way for the global pact to enter into force. The Paris agreement sets a goal of limiting global warming by capping temperature rise to 2oC while aiming at a target of 1.5oC. Part of the effort include parties to pursue domestic mitigation measures with the aim of achieving the objectives of the convention.

The CSOs in the East Africa are contributing to the implementation of Paris Agreement through the project named Promoting Implementation of Paris Agreement in East Africa with Focus on Pro-Poor Low Emission Development (PIPA). Objective of the project is to contribute to strengthen the pro-poor focus and climate change ambitions in the implementation of the Paris Agreement in East Africa. The overall objective of the project is to contribute to strengthen the pro-poor focus and climate change ambitions in the implementation of the Paris Agreement in East Africa. The project has potential to contribute to higher awareness on the benefit of low emission investments, development of more ambitious NDCs and LEDSs, and contribute to more constructive national positions at climate negotiations and other international fora.This project is implemented in partnership with Sustainable Energy (SE) of Denmark, International Network for Sustainable Energy (INFORSE), Tanzania Traditional Energy Development Organization (TaTEDO), Sustainable Environmental Development Watch Kenya (SusWatch Kenya) and Uganda Coalition for Sustainable Development (UCSD) through the project called.

On March 7th 2017, the PIPA project was launched in Tanzania through the national inception workshop held at TaTEDO, SEDC Conference Hall, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A total of 23 participants from the Mass Media, Private Sector, Government, Academic Institutions, Youth and Women Groups attended the workshop. The workshop aimed to fulfill objectives of introducing the PIPA project to the partners/coalition members to buy in the idea and to assess partner’s needs for capacity building to be able to participate in implementation of the PIPA project.

The workshop provided an opportunity to discuss on status of implementation of Paris Agreement at national and international level.A number of issues were raised and discussed including:-
Ratification:, stakeholders wanted to know Tanzania status on ratification as more than 133 out of 197 parties have ratified the Paris Agreement,
Accreditation: It was noted that so far there was no national entity accredited for Green Climate Fund, stakeholders felt that it is a lost opportunity for the country.
Adoption: There is low adoption of Paris Agreement and low mainstreaming of emission development solutions in the national development plans, policies, strategies, etc.
Statistics: Accuracy on data for GHGs emission is debatable. the country is lacking up-to-date data for GHG emissions; there is a need to work out on this issue.
Awareness:Stakeholders in addition, argued on low awareness of Paris Agreement/low emission development solutions at all levels; there is a need to promote the agreement.

Stakeholders agreed on how to engage to the process to ensure their views and recommendations are heard and incorporated in the Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) and the Low Emission Development Strategies (LEDS) of Tanzania. As a way forward, stakeholder were called upon to improve knowledge on Paris agreement/low emission development through existing online information to bring a meaningful participation in implementation of the PIPA project and enable them to explore associated opportunities including thinking of developing a joint proposal for resource mobilization from potential sources of climate finances.

 
Promoting Implementation of the Paris Agreement (PIPA) in East Africa with a Focus on Pro-Poor Low Emission Development
Promoting Implementation of the Paris Agreement (PIPA) in East Africa with a Focus on Pro-Poor Low Emission DevelopmentPromoting Implementation of the Paris Agreement (PIPA) in East Africa with a focus on pro-poor low emission development project is being implemented in Tanzania, Kenya and Uganda in partnership with Sustainable Energy (SE) of Denmark, International Network for Sustainable Energy (INFORSE), Tanzania Traditional Energy Development Organization (TaTEDO), Sustainable Environmental Development Watch Kenya (SusWatch Kenya) and Uganda Coalition for Sustainable Development (UCSD).

Project Development objective: Contribute to strengthen the pro-poor focus and climate change ambitionsin the implementation of the Paris Agreement in East Africa.

Target Group & Participants
The primary target group and participants in this project are the CSOs in Tanzania, Kenya, and Uganda working on climate change, women’s associations, youth associations, climate change networks, associations of farmers, and associations of businesses that are involved in low emission development solutions. The primary target group will create awareness on the national framework climate change policy and legislation process, on-going endeavours to improve the NDCs and further integration of climate change into development plans for 2018-2022. A well-functioning regional cooperation could contribute to increase the capacities in these fields of the countries and give synergies.

The secondary target group is national, regional, and international decision-makers as well as relevant private sector actors. The secondary targets are the duty bearers whose decisions determine the course of development and allocate funds. At the national levels it is mainly ministries and government agencies involved. At the regional level, the main decision-makers targeted are relevant EAC institutions and committees; development partners working on climate change and energy related interventions, business entities, and media.
Expected outputs of the project

The project has potential to contribute to increased awareness on the benefit of low emission investments, development of more ambitious NDCs and LEDSs, and contribute to more constructive national positions at climate negotiations and other international fora.
• Nationally, CSO networks strengthened and participate actively to influence the NDCs and LEDSs.
• Regional CSO cooperation to influence the NDCs and LEDSs including financing strengthened.
• Increased coordinated CSO advocacy for an improved international framework including funding of NDCs and LEDSs.

 
MANZESE SECONDARY SCHOOL BIOGAS PROJECT
MANZESE SECONDARY SCHOOL BIOGAS PROJECTIn May 2014 TaTEDO signed a contract with the United Nations Human Settlement Program of UN- HABITAT to implement a project for the construction of 200 m3 Biogas Plant at Manzese Secondary school in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The main objective of the project was to improve sanitation system at Manzese Secondary School with an environmentally friendly solution. The construction work of 200 m3 Biogas Plant at Manzese Secondary school in Dar es Salaam was completed in June 2015. During construction the following activities were undertaken

SITE CLEARANCE AND EXCAVATION WORK
Site preparations and clearance were completed in September 2014 followed by excavation of 2 pits of 100m3 twin Bio latrine. After excavation the construction of bio digesters started.

 
TaTEDO Has Increased Energy Access through Mini grids and Solar PV systems in more than 100 Villages in Tanzania.
TaTEDO Has Increased Energy Access through Mini grids and Solar PV systems in more than 100 Villages in Tanzania.TaTEDO has finally achieved to reach a wider population of the marginalized communities in more than 100 villages in Tanzania through the EU/HIVOS supported programme on Up-Scaling Access to Integrated Modern Energy Services for Poverty Reduction. Under this programme more than 37,000 people from different rural communities have accessed energy services through different energy technologies such as Energy Services Platforms (ESP)/Multifunctional Platforms (MFPs) and Solar PV systems.

Two different types of ESP installed which included the ESP with mini grids and those with no mini grids. The ESP with mini grids were installed in 18 rural villages of Tanzania. The mini grids are located in different villages in Shinyanga, Manyara, Tanga, Tabora, Geita, Kagera, and Kilimanjaro Regions.

 
TaTEDO under EEP Programme has Improved the Social Services in Rural Tanzania
TaTEDO under EEP Programme has Improved the Social Services in Rural TanzaniaTaTEDO has successfully implemented a Sustainable Energy Project for Improving Education, Health and Business Services in Tanzania which was financed by Energy and Environment Partnership Programme (EEP). The project was implemented in the period of January 2013 to June 2015

The project was designed with the focus of improving modern energy access services in the social and business centers located in off grid areas. The aim of the project was to install sustainable energy systems and through its successes, the impacts to the beneficiaries could motivate other communities and institutions to request for scaling up and replication of similar technologies. The installed technologies included solar PV systems, solar water heaters and improved cook stoves.

 
Policy Brief - Biomass Energy: Marginalized but an Important Energy Source for the Majority in Tanzania
Biomass EnergyKEY MESSAGE
Biomass energy (mainly firewood and charcoal) has consistently figured around 90% of national energy demand for over 30 years. More than 95% of households in Tanzania use firewood and charcoal as their source of energy for cooking. Firewood and charcoal will continue to play an important role in the national energy mix for many years to come.

The sector employs more than 300,000 families and generates approximately TZS 1.6 trillion annually. Despite its key role, the sector is characterized by weak governance and poor law enforcement leading to deforestation and forest degradation. A clear policy, strategies and legal framework is required to guide the sustainable development and growth of biomass energy sector.
 
TaTEDO Installed Mini-grids for Rural Electrification in 16 Villages
TaTEDO Installed Mini-grids for Rural Electrification in 16 VillagesTaTEDO through the EU/HIVOS supported programme on Up-Scaling Access to Integrated Modern Energy Services for Poverty Reduction has installed mini-grids in 16 rural villages of Tanzania. These are villages located in Shinyanga, Manyara, Tanga, Tabora, minigridKagera, and Kilimanjaro Regions. The villages received mini-grids (and their respective districts) are Mwamadilanha, Mwakitode and Lyabukande (Shinyanga Rural), Ulowa, Chambo and Segese (Kahama), Mji Mwema (Siha), Lunzawe and Uyovu (Bukombe), Mashewa and Kimbo (Muheza), Mnazi and Mlola (Lushoto)Nyakanazi (Biharamulo), Kijungu (Kiteto) and Kona Nne (Kaliua).

 
TaTEDO Hosted AREED II Partners’ Meeting in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Clean EnergyTaTEDO has recently hosted a three-day AREED II partners meeting in Tanzania. The meeting was held from 4th to 6th of July 2011 at Kunduchi Beach Hotel, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The event brought together AREED partners from five countries. These countries are Tanzania, Mali, Zambia, Senegal and Ghana.
 
School Children Free from Indoor Air Pollution
School Children Free from Indoor Air PollutionTandale Primary School is a Government School which is located at Kinondoni Municipal Council in Dar es Salaam Region, Tanzania. There are 1,834 students studying from 8 am to 4 pm . School provides breakfast for students once a day prepared on traditional three stone firetandale-wood stove.